Tips for preventing ski injuries

Tips for preventing ski injuries

Ski season is in full swing — but an injury can put you out of commission until next year’s first snowfall. Here’s how to stay safe on the slopes all winter long.

While many people huddle inside during the winter months, away from “bomb cyclones” and blizzards, a select few know that the best way to beat wintry weather is to embrace it — on the ski slopes, that is!

As any seasoned skier will tell you, however, their beloved sport does come with the risk of injury. Fortunately, taking some simple precautions before you hit the slopes can help you stay in peak condition regardless of how many tumbles you take.

We’ve outlined some of the most common injuries that afflict skiers, and what you can do to prevent them.

MCL Injuries

A number of injuries can affect the medial collateral ligament (MCL), but the most common by far is an MCL tears. In skiing, MCL tears most often occur when the skier falls while attempting to slow or stop in a snowplow position, in which the tips of the skis are pointed toward each other. To avoid injury in this position, make sure to always keep your weight balanced. In addition, sticking to runs with which you’re comfortable can reduce the need to enter the snowplow position at all.

ACL Injuries

A variety of falls on the slopes can result in a tear of the anterior cruciante ligament (ACL). It most commonly happens after a forward fall, during which the inner edge of the front of the ski becomes embedded in the snow, trapping the leg in the process. It can also occur when the top of the back of the boot pushes the tibia (the weight-bearing bone in the leg) forward, away from the femur. On other occasions, it arises when the skier leans back on the skis, loses balance, and falls backward. Strengthening the hamstrings, wearing proper bindings, and using shorter skis can all reduce the risk of sustaining an ACL tear.


Like torn ligaments, fractures are most commonly caused by falls while skiing. The wrist and ankles are particularly susceptible to breaks. To help avoid broken bones, always wear adequate protective gear and practice proper techniques for falling. Increasing cardiovascular endurance and developing the surrounding muscles can also be beneficial.

Shoulder Dislocations

Most shoulder dislocations happen when skiers fall, either directly onto the shoulder or onto an outstretched hand or arm. This injury results in heavy, immediate pain, significantly restricts the shoulder’s range of motion, and can leave it misshapen. Since dislocations are caused by sudden trauma, they can be difficult to anticipate, but strengthening the rotator cuff muscles, especially if you have previously dislocated your shoulder, can lower the risk of a dislocation. As with other common skiing injuries, employing proper form will also minimize the possibility of a dislocation.

Spinal Injuries

Aside from protecting the spinal cord, the spine ensures the strength and stability of the back. It is made up of various bony segments called vertebrae separated by pieces of fibrocartilaginous tissue called intervertebral discs, any of which can be injured while skiing. Some ways to avoid spinal injuries include using spine protectors, sticking to trails on which you are comfortable, using proper equipment, and learning the technique for “safe” falls.

While some ski injuries are immediately apparent, others can be more subtle, slowly progressing with time. Fortunately, the talented team of specialists at New York Bone and Joint has extensive experience working in sports medicine and can quickly diagnose and treat any of these common problems. If you think you may have suffered an injury during your latest trip to the mountain, call us today to schedule a consultation, or if the injury has been recent, stop in to our Orthopedic Urgent Care!

Shoulder Instability:  More common than you would think

Shoulder Instability: More common than you would think

Professional athletes aren’t the only people who suffer from unstable shoulders. We’ll walk you through the most common causes of — and treatments for — this condition.

Because professional athletes have undergone intense training to mold their bodies into peak physical shape, it’s easy to assume that they’re immune to the common injuries that affect the rest of us. Recent news, however, has shown that no one is completely protected from injury. For example, Tom Brady and Aaron Rodgers — two of the best quarterbacks in the NFL — have both shown that they are suffering from significant shoulder injuries, with Rodgers missing the remainder of the season due to a broken collarbone.

In fact, shoulder damage is one of the most common injuries for NFL players and laymen alike. Since the shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body, it’s especially prone to problems. For most of us, however, shoulder injuries are caused by gradual wear and tear rather than sudden trauma. While these injuries don’t ultimately result in chronic instability, they can hasten the degeneration of the cartilage in the shoulder, which then can leave the shoulder unstable. Fortunately, these problems can be effectively treated with the help of a qualified orthopedic specialist such as Dr. Main and Dr. Gershtenson, and a rigorous rehabilitation program.

What Is Shoulder Instability?

Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that leads to frequent dislocations of the shoulder. It occurs when the end of the humerus (the ball of the shoulder joint) separates from the glenoid (the socket of the shoulder joint). These dislocations can be either partial or full.

Shoulder instability has a variety of causes. In many cases, it’s simply a product of previous shoulder dislocations, since a traumatic dislocation often causes tears in the stabilizing cartilage and ligaments. A shoulder is more likely to be dislocated again if it’s already been dislocated. Unusually loose ligaments in the shoulder can also heighten the risk, especially if they’ve been loosened by repetitive motion and strain, as often occurs in football players, swimmers, and tennis players.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

There are several symptoms of a chronically unstable shoulder. One of the most common is frequent subluxation, or repeated partial dislocations. Often caused by overhead motions, these subluxations create a brief feeling of pain and a slipping sensation in the shoulder. In more severe cases, full dislocation may occur, resulting in intense pain and visible abnormalities like bumps in the shoulder. Shoulder instability can also result in a “dead arm”, or a feeling as though a nerve has been pinched.

While you can perform some tests on your own, self-examinations can further aggravate the shoulder — so it’s best to let a professional diagnose your condition. In addition to consulting your medical history, a doctor may move your shoulder into specific positions to test the stability of the joint. If these movements cause pain or further displace the shoulder, it’s likely unstable, and X-rays and an MRI might be needed to determine the extent of the injury.


Non-traumatic shoulder instability can often be treated nonsurgically, through rest, anti-inflammatory medication, and physical therapy. If the instability is the result of trauma and it creates a Bankart lesion (a tear in the cartilage), then arthroscopic surgery is usually necessary to stabilize the joint and prevent recurrent dislocations, which can otherwise lead to degeneration and premature arthritis.

Physical therapy largely consists of various stretching and strengthening exercises that rebuild the joints, ligaments, and muscles and restore their range of motion, stabilizing the shoulder in the process. These exercises are often targeted to strengthen the rotator cuff and the scapular muscle, and can be aided by resistance bands. In addition, your physical therapist will teach you how to properly use your shoulder, reducing the chance of painful subluxation and dislocation while you heal.

If you’re concerned about your shoulder, our team of best-in-class orthopedic physicians at CompOrtho are here to help. With our extensive experience, we have the knowledge and ability needed to help you at every stage of treatment, from diagnosis through rehabilitation. If you’re searching for a reliable and compassionate provider, contact us today to schedule an initial consultation.

What Is a Cortisone Shot?

What Is a Cortisone Shot?

Cortisone shots can potentially provide long-lasting relief from pain and inflammation in the joints.

Many injections can greatly reduce pain and inflammation caused by musculoskeletal injuries or chronic conditions such as arthritis, significantly shortening recovery timelines and providing lasting relief. One shot we particularly recommend to patients entails an injection of cortisone into a damaged joint. We’ll tell you what you need to know about this tried-and-true treatment for pain and inflammation in the joints.

What Is a Cortisone Shot?

A cortisone shot is an injection composed of a corticosteroid medication and a local anesthetic. Used to relieve pain and inflammation, it’s most commonly injected into a joint, often in the shoulder, hip, or knee. These shots are often one option in a comprehensive treatment plan for chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, tendinitis, or rotator cuff impingements or tears.

How Long Does a Cortisone Shot Last?

A cortisone shot’s effectiveness depends on the severity of the patient’s condition. In most cases, pain and inflammation will marginally increase for about 48 hours following the injection, and will decrease precipitously thereafter. In some cases, a single injection can provide relief for as long as several months.

Generally, cortisone shots should only be given two times per joint per year. Repeated cortisone injections can damage the cartilage in the joint.

What Are the Side Effects of a Cortisone Shot?

Cortisone shots are typically safe in moderation, but since they infrequently lead to serious complications, they should be taken under a doctor’s supervision. Be sure to let your doctor know if you suffer from diabetes or other any other conditions affecting your blood sugar levels, as well as any medications that you are currently taking.

Most cortisone shots have some minor side effects, including a temporary uptick in pain and inflammation in and around the joint, and a thinning and lightening of the skin around the site of the injection. In some cases, however, they can result in a sudden spike in blood sugar if you’re diabetic and have poorly controlled blood sugar levels. .

What If the Cortisone Shot Doesn’t Work?

Cortisone shots provide a source of temporary relief from inflammation and pain. They will not solve the underlying problem, and pain may gradually return as the shot’s effectiveness subsides. As a result, cortisone shots should be administered as part of a more comprehensive treatment plan that may include physical therapy or surgery.

Fortunately, our team of orthopedic specialists at Comprehensive Orthopaedics has several years of experience in treating joint problems. Regardless of your specific condition, we’ll work with you to develop a personalized treatment plan that provides lasting relief from your symptoms.

Preventing Sports Injuries

Preventing Sports Injuries

Exercise is good for the body and with the proper precautions, sports injuries can often be prevented. The quality of protective equipment – padding, helmets, shoes, mouth guards – have helped to improve the safety in sports. But, you can still be susceptible to injury. Always contact your healthcare provider before starting any type of physical activity, especially vigorous types of exercises or sports.

Causes of sport injuries may include:

  • improper or poor training practices
  • wearing improper sporting gear
  • being in poor health condition
  • improper warm-up or stretching practices before a sporting event or exercise

Common sports injuries include:

  • Sprains and strains
  • Joint injuries (knee)
  • Muscle injuries
  • Dislocations
  • Fractures
  • Achilles tendon injuries
  • Pain along the shin bone

How can I prevent a sports injury?

The following are some basic steps to prevent a sports injury:

  • Develop a fitness plan that includes cardiovascular exercise, strength training, and flexibility.  This will help decrease your chance of injury
  • Alternate exercising different muscle groups and exercise every other day.
  • Cool down properly after exercise or sports. It should take 2 times as long as your warm ups.
  • Stay hydrated. Drink water to prevent dehydration, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke.
  • Stretching exercises can improve the ability of muscles to contract and perform, reducing the risk for injury. Each stretch should start slowly until you reach a point of muscle tension. Stretching should not be painful. Aim to hold each stretch for up to 20 seconds.
  • Use the right equipment or gear and wear shoes that provide support  and that may correct certain foot problems that can lead to injury.
  • Learn the right techniques to play your sport.
  • Rest when tired, Avoid exercise when you are tired or in pain.
  • Always take your time during strength training and go through the full range of motion with each repetition.
  • If you do sustain a sports injury, make sure you participate in adequate rehabilitation before resuming strenuous activity.

Injectable Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are potent drugs used to reduce inflammation in the body’s tissues. They are different from anabolic steroids. These are illegally used by some athletes to increase muscle tone.

Corticosteroids can come in several forms: pills, liquids, creams, ointments, medicines sprayed into the nose, and injectable medicines.

Photo of syringe and needle

Corticosteroid injections can treat a variety of skeletal, muscular, and spinal conditions. Some of these injections can be performed by your health care provider during a routine clinic visit; others need a referral to a pain or other specialist.

Here are some of their most common uses:

  • Osteoarthritis. People with osteoarthritis often develop pain and inflammation in their joints. An injection of corticosteroids into the affected joint can give temporary pain relief for several weeks or months. After the treatment, your health care provider may recommend avoiding strenuous activity for at least 24 hours for the best results.
  • Low back pain. Lower back pain from ruptured disks, spinal stenosis, and some other conditions may be treated with injectable corticosteroids to provide some relief. Lumbar radiculopathy is pain in the buttocks, hips, or legs that comes from a pinched nerve in the lower back. This type of pain can often be treated with corticosteroid injections near the pinched nerve. Sometimes other drugs like local anesthetics are given with the corticosteroid.
  • Cervical radiculopathy. This is neck pain that radiates to the shoulder, arm, or hands. It happens when the vertebrae in the spine move closer together or a disc bulges or ruptures, pinching a nerve in the neck. Injecting corticosteroids near the pinched nerve may reduce swelling and relieve pain. This gives the nerve some time to heal.
  • Bursitis and tendonitis. Bursitis is a common condition that happens when the fluid sac that normally cushions spaces between bones, muscles, and skin becomes inflamed and painful. Tendonitis is a common condition in which the tendons around muscles and bones become inflamed. The areas that are commonly affected are the elbow, knee, shoulder, wrist, hand, and hip. Injected corticosteroids can reduce the inflammation. But you must be careful because repeated steroid use can cause the tendon to weaken or even rupture.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome. This condition happens when a nerve in the wrist becomes compressed or pinched, causing pain, numbness, tingling, and possibly weakness in the hand. Injecting a corticosteroid into the wrist can give immediate, though temporary, relief. An anesthetic like lidocaine may also be given with the steroid.

Cautions about corticosteroids

Corticosteroids can have a number of side effects, including high blood sugar levels. For this reason, people with diabetes are advised to tell their health care providers about their condition before taking any steroid medicines.

Using injectable corticosteroids for a long period of time is not suggested because of additional side effects. These include osteoporosis, cataracts, delayed growth, stomach ulcers, skin atrophy and depigmentation, and high blood pressure. You may experience short-term side effects like local pain or infection at the injection site. Your health care provider will usually limit your total number of corticosteroid injections to 3 to 4 a year.

If you are considering taking corticosteroids to treat a muscular or skeletal condition, be sure to talk with your health care provider about all the benefits and risks.